Males neutered or unneutered don't fare so well Our redbone hounds are very adaptable to any game you wish to hunt. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The Black and Tan Coonhound was the first coon hound to be considered a separate breed than the Foxhound. There are Pharaoh Hounds, Norwegian Elkhounds, Afghans and Beagles, among others. There are several types of hunting dogs developed for various tasks and purposes. It is believed that the presence of coyotes in Central America is pretty recent. They are known for being quite vocal, even when not pursuing game. The … 14. © The American Kennel Club, Inc. 2020. I finally got the guys name in Ontario that my buddy bought her from. Male coyote + female dog = Coydog Female Coyote + Male dog = Dogote. Coyotes live mainly in nuclear families (one female at least). Bathing should only occur on an occasional basis as bathing that occurs too frequently may strip the coat of the natural oils that keep it healthy and leave the dog more susceptible to the cold. The Mearns’ coyote is found in Arizona, Chihuahua, New Mexico, and in parts of northern Mexico. Beyond this, however, generalizations about hounds are hard to come by, since the Group encompasses quite a diverse lot. i personally run all redbones on yotes. Due to their wide distribution, the coyotes habitat and feeding habits are different too. This dog is a crossbreed … One was a big still mouthed male that was slowly making a hound, but was either killed or stolen. The Tiburón Island coyote is found on the Tiburón Island. They posses a high prey drive that has been bred into them for the sole purpose of coursing game in the field: from their ancestors coursing deer and stags to present day hare and coyote hunters. How Dog Shows Work, iy_2020; im_12; id_02; ih_18; imh_35; i_epoch:1606962916263, py_2020; pm_11; pd_11; ph_01; pmh_50; p_epoch:1605088240083, link-block-publisher; link-block-publisher_link-block-publisher; bodystr, pn_tstr:Wed Nov 11 01:50:40 PST 2020; pn_epoch:1605088240083. Beagi (Beagle x Corgi) Intelligent, friendly, loyal, gentle-tempered, and protective. We have strived to develop a redbone hound that can truly be classified as a big game hound, specially bred to use on bear. The eastern coyotes include only two subspecies found in the eastern part of North America. The Texas Plains coyote is found in western Texas and the eastern parts of New Mexico. Coydog puppies are not very playful and outgoing like other breeds of dogs. We don’t breed for a specific voice or look in our dogs, we breed for a balanced hound. If you are wanting 'nothing but a hound dog' here is a selection of hound dog breeds for you to look through. LGD breeds all have a different way they protect the flock, no one way is better than the other, but a combination of there tactics is the best. Beyond this, however, generalizations about hounds are hard to come by, since the Group…. But, coyotes are totally different and are observed in a variety of coat colors. In essence, the American Staghound was born. While there is no questioning that, what is even more interesting is their ability…, Known for their characteristic foul-smelling spray which travels as far as ten feet, skunks are small creatures with an average size of 15 - 20 inches. Plus, it’s just a flat-out beautiful breed! List your kennel with us and advertise that you are a breeder, trainer or handler. See more ideas about Dogs, Coyote, Hunting dogs. The California valley coyote is found in Sierra Nevada. He’s a mix between Great Pyrenees, Basset Hound, and Beagle. A hunting dog is a canine that hunts with or for humans. Foxes are small and have a typical orange-golden color. Sacchetto the Coydog (domestic dog /Coyote hybrid) The Coydog is not a purebred dog. It has a reddish coat, short ears, large teeth, and a broad muzzle. It has a large tail and long ears. blueticks as coyote hounds. The information about different types of spiders is provided in the form of tables in this article. 1. This canide hybrid should be socialized well at an early stage with people and other pets they are expected to live with, when adult. Hypoallergenic. There are however some dog breeds that are particularly famous for their abilities to keep their poultry safe. It has many features common to the coyote, both by temperament and appearance. Dog Breeds. In our area we get a lot of coy-dogs - unspayed females being lured into the pack and bred producing these nasty half-breeds. We hope you enjoy this website. Big difference. Developed in the 1800s for big game hunting, they are commonly seen on farm yards in North Carolina and neighbouring states. Littermates that could get it done. Best dog breeds for Coyote Hunting. Their diet ranges from rodents, birds, snakes, and fish to fruits and vegetables. Another dog out of Egypt, the Ibizan hound is prized for its sprinting and jumping abilities. Your raccoon dog must have a high-developed sense of smell for raccoon, great desire to chase them, good mobility functions, increased resistance, has to be able to run through all types of terrain and most importantly, be loyal and obeying. Coyotes have only a few predators which include humans, cougars, and wolves. A hound is a type of hunting dog used by hunters to track or chase prey. Temperament. The Akbash It has short ears, but has a long muzzle. It has a dark-colored coat and also a broad skull and large teeth. The Plains coyote is found in the plains of central Canada, Alberta, Oklahoma, and Texas. It has a pale look but possess strong teeth. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. These dogs are first and fundamentally working dogs – they hunt large and small … The Plott Hound is a medium-sized coonhound with a short, brindle coat. Popularity. A few hundred generations of this sort of breeding lead to what many refer to as the epitome of coyote coursing sighthounds. The Mexican coyote is found in states like Oaxaca, Puebla, and Veracruz of Mexico. Free hunting dog classifieds for the upland bird hunter and wetland waterfowl hunter. This species also has many black-tipped hair on its belly. Coyotes are distinguished into 4 types based on their distribution as mentioned above, and have very few physical differences to distinguish them from each other. A hound is a type of hunting dog used by hunters to track or chase prey. Little to no trash breaking is required once these dogs are started on the game you wish them to hunt. Staghound was bred to Staghound and was most often culled specifically for characteristics that favored the pursuit of coyote. Bring your dog to various terrains, with the other dogs locating and scenting coyotes and signal the dog to come back with a coyote following to a shooting range. This animal has been developed by cross-breeding Scottish deerhound, greyhound, and some other breeds. 1. Among the popular breeds in this section are Black and Tans, Redbone, Blue tick, English, Walkers and Plott as well as many working crosses between these breeds. Some like their lines some don't. The female I have is more like Nitros' Rocky dog. It has a dark-colored coat and the legs have black markings or color patches. It has a huge population and so is listed as “Least Concern” by the IUCN. Specifically, the French developed the basset hound as a hare hunter. It is small and dark-colored, and has large ears but smaller teeth and skull. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. A hound who isn’t working can be prone to becoming overweight, so owners should monitor the dog’s calorie consumption and weight level. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Hounds, particularly active, working hound breeds, are prone to destructive bouts of depression when they haven’t been offered enough exercise and mental stimulation. The northwest coast coyote is found in the coastal regions of Oregon and Washington. The Durango coyote is found in Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, and Sinaloa. No. Before choosing which raccoon hound breed to use in your hunting sessions, please remember the basic qualities a good hound must meet. The northeastern coyote is found in Saskatchewan, Ontario, Indiana, and Missouri. It has dark fur and the belly has scattered black-tipped hair. Most hounds share the common ancestral trait of being used for hunting. Beagle. Intelligence. Some hounds share the distinct ability to produce a unique sound known as baying. July Hounds.I raise and train July fox and coyote hounds.Started and finished hounds and puppies for sale.I have had the same strain for many years. Short descriptions of the…. Known as one of the best all-around hound dogs, Treeing Walker Hound is known to have a strong sense of smell and ability to chase after many different types of … Sacchetto the Coydog (domestic dog /Coyote hybrid) The Coydog is not a purebred dog. … I wanna call him up and find out more about her line before I breed my Running Walker to her. It is the largest among the four and has a pale coat. We hope you enjoyed our list of top 14 Great Pyrenees cross breeds and would love to know your thoughts and opinions on our choices. There was an article on the killing of the Lead Dog, Pep in the Hunter's Horn, April 1936 page 16, about how in a Bexar county, Texas The July Hound has a short, weatherproof coat that is typically quite easy to manage. Some breeds that serve as perfect watchdogs are Poodle, ShihTzu, Dachshund, Chihuahua, and Terriers. American Staghound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting This animal has been developed by cross-breeding Scottish deerhound, greyhound, and some other breeds. A habituated coyotes is a potential problem coyote. It is a small-sized subspecies with dark and rufous-tinged fur. The San Pedro Martir coyote is found in the northern part of Baja California and southwest California. The female chooses a male, they bond for 2 – 3 months, and then they start marking their territory. That is one big hound Vargy! 72. … My son and I were elated, and every bit of tiredness was gone. Also, a coydog’s behavior and disposition majorly varies upon which dog it has developed from.The individual disposition of the coydogs … These cookies do not store any personal information. Average Size: 20-25 kgs Life Expectancy: 12-14 Years Specialty: Flushing, Gun dog. Others demonstrate a phenomenal gift of stamina as they relentlessly run down quarry. Let’s get some more information about these types. Most hounds share the common ancestral trait of being used for hunting. Hound dogs were bred to hunt and while many famously come from France, all countries have there own version of one or more likely several types of hound dogs. Before choosing which hound breed to use in your coon hunting sessions, please remember the basic qualities a good hound must meet. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. You'd best sample this sound before you decide to get a hound of your own to be sure it's your cup of tea. His owner Dave was kind enough to pass this photo along! Hypoallergenic. Read on to know more of the […] !.July Hound … Amongst the most supreme of all hound dogs, the Afghan Hound is an old dog breed, a fleet of glamorous and foot.A brilliant hunter at heart and an excellent show dog, the Afghan Hound appear strong and receptive by nature. The Colima coyote is found in Jalisco, Guerrero, the coastal regions of Mexico. steve, as for Best breed,style,size,best nose,and jump dogs it can be found in all breeds of hounds. We've all seen those headlines about people's pet gators escaping, but they aren't the only unexpected wildlife you can keep in the Sunshine State. You'd best sample this sound before you decide to get a hound of your own to be sure it's your cup of tea. If your basset hound suddenly bolts in pursuit of small game, congrats: That what this dog was bred for. Not much is known about the lifespan of this mix breed, since it varies depending on the dog breed with which the coyote was mated. “Beezers” were created for hunting small game, including rabbits. The female gives birth to an average of six pups. ANSWER: Top 5 Coyote Hunting Dogs American Staghound. Hound Dog Breeds Home » Dog Categories » Hound Dog Breeds . These animals are highly intelligent and the older … Also, it has a large skull and long ears. The Black and Tan was best known as its use in trailing and treeing raccoon, howling at his quarry. There are a number of coonhound breeds, the most popular being the Black and Tan Coonhound (pictured), Bluetick Coonhound, Redbone Coonhound, Plott Hound, Treeing Walker Coonhound, English Coonhound, and American Leopard Hound. They are lightning fast and unbelievably agile. It may have a reddish coat and is a large subspecies. The Coydog is a hybrid between a coyote and a dog. ... Hound Dog Breeds. Some use acute scenting powers to follow a trail. Color does not matter, all breeds have good and bad blood lines. The mountain coyote is found in northwestern states like Washington and Canada to the southern part of Alaska. Well the closest I'm aware of is Frank Nerd in western Nebraska and I think Jim Stoffard is up in there also. Ibizan Hound. Afghan Hound. It has a pale look but possess strong teeth. With their need for a lot of affection and care, it is very much like a child and very tough to handle. Their coat colors come in mixtures of gray, white, black, and brown. Popularity 2019. Apart from their hunting skills, most hounds make excellent pets. The Lower Rio Grande coyote is found in southern Texas and northern Tamaulipas. Each hunter has different requirements in their hounds but the main requirement is that the dog satisfies its owner, no matter what breed you are feeding. The breed is a descendant of the French Bleu de Gascogne hound and the English foxhound. Belarusian Gonchak hound, the National dog breed of Belarus, face to face with a wild boar. Coyote-Dog mixes are very temperamental, and despite their adorable features, they are a very tough breed to domesticate and handle. They resemble in appearance to wolves but can be distinguished by the length of the ears and shape of the muzzle. Also, it has a large skull and long ears. Ok guys school me.Want to maybe get into hunting coyotes with hounds. The Durango coyote is found in Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, and Sinaloa. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Post Dogs. AKC actively advocates for responsible dog ownership and is dedicated to advancing dog sports. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. They have been classified on the basis of their geographical habitat. It is native to North America and is found right from the northern part of Canada to Central America. The Salvador coyote is found in Cerro Mogote and southern Panama. Hound Dog Breeds Home » Dog Categories » Hound Dog Breeds . A new species of predator which is a hybrid of a wolf and an Eastern coyote has been nicknamed a 'coywolf,' by scientists for its unique DNA. There are 19 subspecies of coyotes which are distinguished by their genetic differences and also according to their distribution range of each. These dogs will alert you to the presence of intruders with their constant barking. Similar breeds include the redbone coonhound, the treeing walker coonhound, and the black and tan coonhound. Hound dogs were bred to hunt and while many famously come from France, all countries have there own version of one or more likely several types of hound … The bluetick makes an excellent companion for very active households. Others demonstrate a phenomenal gift of stamina as they relentlessly run down quarry. 3 females 1 Male hound pup. Apart from their hunting skills, most hounds make excellent pets. This is what made us, the typesofchicken.com team to prepare for our readers an article about the best dog breeds that can keep you, your family and your poultry safe and show pure loyalty. Find puppies for sale, started dogs for sale and finished dogs from all sorts of different pointing breeds, retrieving breeds and flushing breeds.. Pointer. In general, it may range anywhere between 5 – 15 years of age. A tame coyote, “Butch” appeared in films like “Smoky” and “Ramrod”in 1946-47. what should I look for.Best breed,style,size,best nose,and jump dogs.Can I take some coonhound pups and turn them into good dogs.I hunted with some guys that had some dogs and by my standards 2 dogs were ok and the rest should have … With some on-the-fly planning and lucky shooting, we had a coyote down. coyote they were running would come near the camp fire of the men. Hound Hunting Related Classifieds. The interesting facts about coyotes go well beyond the depiction of this species in popular culture. His name is Ross Purdy. Long walks and runs are always appreciated and along with hunting fox and coyotes, the Running Walker Foxhound is also quite skilled at scenting … Scent hounds are the most likely of the hound dog breeds to actually be used for hunting today. Mountain View UKC Registered Big Game Bred Blue Tick Puppies For Sale. 1. The southeastern coyote is found in the southeastern regions of Kansas, Texas, Missouri, and Arkansas. It is a cross between the domestic dog and the coyote. Central U.S. coyotes include four subspecies which are found in the central states of North America. Dog Breeds List. It is a small subspecies with a coarse and rufus-colored coat, but the fur is thin. The best way to determine the temperament of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and know you can get any combination of any of the characteristics found in either breed. It has a bright and thick fur coat and small ears. He's carrying to much weight for one thing. Just a hound. Feb 6, 2019 - Explore Jeremiah Nygren's board "coyote dogs" on Pinterest. The western coyotes include six subspecies which are found in the western part of North America. It is a medium-sized subspecies and has cinnamon-colored fur. This breed was developed as a race dog and rabbit courser in England, the … Some hounds share the distinct ability to produce a unique sound known as baying. 3yo Finished Coyote Hound. Using data from sources like the American Kennel Club and Vet Street, Stacker has compiled a list of 55 dog breeds that originated in America. The American Staghound. Though they are known to live in large groups as well and hunt huge preys in packs. Staghounds are the extreme athlete of the hound world. They would rarely attack a human but they cause a lot of damage and losses to livestock. Get in touch with us and we'll talk... Coyotes (Canis latrans) belong to the family Canidae, which also includes dogs, wolves, and foxes. Beagle, a popular scent hound with intense tracking and smelling ability, has been crossed with a whole lot of popular purebreds. With a name like pointer, you can probably guess that this is at least a good hunting dog breed. Coydogs are very rare mainly … Lifespan: 12-15 years #7. as in all breeds there`s good and bad and not all hounds can do it all. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Scent hounds are the most likely of the hound dog breeds to actually be used for hunting today. It may have a reddish coat and is a large subspecies. This type includes the seven subspecies found mainly in Central America and Mexico. Some of the most popular hound dog breeds include: 1. Even though coyotes have descended from wolves, they are smaller than wolves but larger than foxes. The best way to determine the temperament of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and know you can get any combination of any of the characteristics found in either breed. A guard dog however does more than just raising the alarm; it will do something to deal with malicious strangers and animals. Some use acute scenting powers to follow a trail. More than that, it’s one of the most iconic bird dog breeds in the world. Your hound must have a high-developed sense of smell for raccoon, great desire to chase them, good mobility functions, increased resistance, has to be able to run through all types of terrain and most importantly, be loyal and obeying. Hounds, particularly active, working hound breeds, are prone to destructive bouts of depression when they haven’t been offered enough exercise and mental stimulation. It has a small skull and teeth but a bright-colored fur, especially around the feet. Would you like to write for us? A medium-sized sight hound, Whippets are known for being the fastest domesticated animals of their weight, capable of speeds up to 35 mph, according to Peterson. The Tiburón Island coyote is found on the Tiburón Island. This AnimalSake article gives you information about the types of coyotes with pictures. Steve Weathers had a young male Plott, a little over two years old, out of bearhound breeding that was a nice coyote hound. They have proven themselves on bear, mountain lions, bobcats, raccoon and coyote. Unlike other animals, they attack their prey from the front, or may pounce on rodents or chase squirrels. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Plott Hound. The trip could've ended there and we would’ve been happy, but we hadn’t even been properly introduced to the hounds… Croghan Coyote Hound. All rights reserved. We have a few july people on here !! The coyote (Canis latrans) is a species of canine native to North America.It is smaller than its close relative, the wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf.It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia.The coyote is larger and more predatory, and was once referred to as the American jackal by a behavioral ecologist. Whether it be dogs that chase and kill, dogs that that stay back with the flock and defend from there or dogs who patrol and report back. We've created informative articles that you can come back to again and again when you have questions or want to learn more! 6 subspecies are found in western North America, 2 in the eastern, and 4 in the central North America, while the other 7 are found in Central America and Mexico. The Afghan Hound is an aloof and dignified aristocrat of sublime beauty. They are monogamous in nature. Some stronger fighters some stronger runners. your best bet is to find what type of hound your looking for and what will work best for the type of terrain your running. Brian Jones has a female Plott that is out of coonhound breeding and is a real nice old hound. The peninsula coyote is found in Baja California. Answer a few simple questions and find the right dog for you, Compare up to 5 different breeds side by side, Browse the AKC Marketplace to find the right puppy for you, Browse our extensive library of dog names for inspiration, Find out the best and worst foods for your dog and which to avoid, How Does a Dog Win a Dog Show? Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. I have ran blueticks for 38 years and to be honest it doesn't … The outcome of such a cross has resulted in smart, intelligent canines, also bearing the physical and temperamental characteristics of the other parent involved in the crossing. The PlottHound is lean and muscular with large floppy ears rather like those of a Labrador or Dalmatian. The male hunts and gets food for the female till the gestation period of around 63 days. Hounds like Little Bull, Whiz, Chigger, Lucky, and later, Stormin' Norman, are we ... ll known among coyote hunters across the country. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Despite his regal…, These sleek and racy, lean but muscular hounds work dusk to dawn in pursuit of the wily raccoo…, American Foxhounds are good-natured, low-maintenance hounds who get on well with kids, dogs, eve…, Tall and elegant, the Azawakh is a West African sighthound who originates from the countries of…, The Basenji, Africa’s “Barkless Dog,” is a compact, sweet-faced hunter of intelligence and…, Among the most appealing of the AKC breeds, the endearing and instantly recognizable Basset Hound…, Not only is the Beagle an excellent hunting dog and loyal companion, it is also happy-go-lucky…, Large, athletic hunters who work nights, Black and Tan Coonhounds are friendly, easygoing hound…, The world famous “Sleuth Hound” does one thing better than any creature on earth: find people…, The sleekly beautiful Bluetick Coonhound is a sweet and affectionate charmer who might enjoy…, Among the most impressively beautiful of all dogs, the aristocratic Borzoi is cherished for hi…, The sleek and sinewy Cirneco dell’Etna, the ancient coursing hound of Sicily, is an athletic…. A coyote is faster than a Walker, July or potlicker hound and rarely do the dogs catch a coyote. Greyhound. ... Coyote hunting dog breeds. It has dark and reddish fur. The northern coyote is found from central Canada to Alaska. Said to be a cross of greyhound, scent hound and coyote, the Blue Lacy was adopted officially as the Texas state dog on June 18, 2005, and is the … The major categories of hunting dogs include hounds, terriers, dachshunds, cur type dogs, and gun dogs.Further divisions can be made among these categories based upon the dogs' … Probably some bodies pet or show dog. The Belize coyote is found in San Vicente, Chiapas, Guatemalan, and Mexico.The Honduras coyote is found in the north of Tegucigalpa. The only point of differentiation is in their regional distribution. Coyotes are seen as many people like pests, just like hogs. Both have had good lines and most people in the coyote hound circle at least know of their dogs or have owned them. 6. The pups are totally dependent on the parents, in the early stages. My cousin, Jack Newman, along with Bob Bruffett, and others, kept it alive. Post by coyotewoman123456789 » Sat Sep 23, 2017 7:57 pm . We have tried four others. If you are wanting 'nothing but a hound dog' here is a selection of hound dog breeds for you to look through. Long walks and runs are always appreciated and along with hunting fox and coyotes, the Running Walker Foxhound is also quite skilled at scenting competitions. What they hunt can group them by association. The Plott Hound, a hound with a curious name and a unique history, is a rugged, relentless hunting dog who is a mellow gentleman at home but fearless, implacable, and bold at work. The Grand Fauve de Bretagne (Big Fawn Hound of Brittany) was a predecessor of the modern day Basset Fauve de Bretagne, as well as other Basset and Griffon breeds. Wouldn't call him much of a fox or coyote hound. Sadly, it was shot when it was trying to steal from a henhouse. The American Staghound is well-known for its sharp eyesight and seemingly endless stamina. Founded in 1884, the AKC is the recognized and trusted expert in breed, health, and training information for dogs. Coyotes can also be distinguished from foxes. This helps to control the over-population in some areas, but the coyotes are quite high in numbers so it hardly affects their population. (New York) ***3 year old Female ***Super Fast on Track, Runs to catch ***Bays Well ***Will Jump and Run by Self ***Packs Well ***Loud Clear Mouth ***Tough as Nails *Priced to Sell* $500 Call or Text Donald 585-297-0542 _____ BACKWOODS BOYS KENNELS HOME OF: UKC GRNITECH … ... was a fox hunter in upstate New York and used english and blueticks to run them and his hounds were known like your breed the John ray hounds but if my grandfather didn't like you or you were not a houndsman you didn't get one. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. He doesn't seem to have any scars or stitch marks on his front end , head, or ears , from brush,fences,or fighting. It is quite large and also may have a tinge of red in its coat. What they hunt can group them by association. Among the popular breeds in this section are Black and Tans, Redbone, Blue tick, English, Walkers and Plott as well as many working crosses between these breeds. The Mexican coyote is found in states like Oaxaca, Puebla, … Fifteen minutes into our hunt we spotted a coyote in a field. I have seen good dogs from both. The following coyote hunting dogs are the most popular among hunters around the world : American Staghound - The American Staghound is the result from breeding the Scottish Deerhound, Greyhound with several other unknown breeds. It is a cross between the domestic dog and the coyote. Coyotes have longer ears, a deep muzzle, thin legs, and are smaller than wolves. The Black and Tan Coonhound was developed by crossing the Talbot Hound (now extinct), with the Bloodhound, and black and tan Foxhound. It is small in size, has reddish fur, and a broad skull.
Medical Terminology Prefixes And Suffixes Ppt, Tomato Kayi Chutney Hebbar's Kitchen, La Roche-posay Neck Creamglytone Mild Cream Cleanser Ingredients, Midi Keyboard For Ipad Garageband, Why Am I So Bad At Economics, Learn Vietnamese Vowels, Exo Chen Family, Wilson Sporting Goods History, Arabic Quotes About Strength,