The arts that evolved in these regions were deeply intertwined with the state religion of Roman Catholicism. Der Herrschaftsanspruch auf das 1789 spärlich kolonialisierte Nootka-Territorium wurde ber… All of this trade took place in the context of Spanish imperial rule, which for the entire three centuries of New Spain's existence meant that trade policies were built on the theory of mercantilism. The desire to conquer new lands and to find more gold and silver led explorers into the vast territories of the north. The most valuable export to come from the colony, however, came from New Spain's abundant deposits of silver ore. Silver quickly rose to prominence from the first northern strikes in Zacatecas by 1546, and Spanish miners and merchants spread out across the arid northern half of New Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to exploit the great quantity of silver ore that they found there. The philosophy of mercantilism was the force behind all overseas ventures by European colonial powers. More than anything, the Spanish conquerors were intent on locating and removing precious metals—gold and silver—from the Aztec and Inca empires that they encountered. New Spain, formally cried the Viceryalty o New Spain (Spaingie: Virreinato de Nueva España), wis a viceryalty o the croun o Castile, o the Spainyie empire, comprisin territories in the north owerseas 'Septentrion' (North Americae an Philippines). Colombia; This chaotic political atmosphere attracted further filibustering expeditions from the United States and the Louisiana Territory as enterprising and idealistic individuals attempted to take advantage of Spain's predicament and capture Texas. LANGUAGE: Castilian Spanish; Catalan; Galician; Basque Spanish colonists sought to exploit the region's rich resources for their own personal benefit; the result in terms of economic production was often an adaptation of the pre-existing economy. 1 (February 2001): 89–133. Early European conquistadors and settlers established the encomienda system, in which individual Spaniards received the right to collect labor or tribute or both from specific indio communities. . Encyclopedia.com. In all of these cases, the restrictions that the Spanish Crown hoped to impose on trade with New Spain failed to prevent the valuable commerce of the colony from establishing connections beyond Spain alone. New Spain was defined to include all of Mexico north of Chiapas, incorporating the audiencias of Mexico and Nueva Galicia and the interior provinces of the far north. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spanish administration of New Spain centered on the mining of silver, the defense of the colony from other European powers, and the evangelization and assimilation of Native American peoples into the Spanish colonial system. Mexico City was the largest city in the Americas. In 1810 a parish priest, Miguel Hidalgo, initiated the independence struggle in New Spain by raising a force of peasant soldiers to wrest control of the viceroyalty from peninsular Spaniards. On 24 February 1821 former royalist commander Agustin Iturbide, a Creole, joined forces with the Mexican insurgents and proclaimed the independent empire of Mexico. RELIGION: Roman Catholic In 1786 Charles III divided the rest of New Spain into twelve intendancies (administrative districts governed by an intendant, or royal governor). New Spain became a viceroyalty, which meant that it was a political entity ruled by the Spanish crown. New Spain was governed as a viceroyalty, a province headed by a representative of the king or queen of Spain. ." Aktuelle News, Bilder und Videos zum Thema Spanien auf news.de im Überblick. In 1524 Spanish King Charles V (1519–1556) created the Council of the Indies to govern the New World territories. Viceroyalty of New Spain, the first of the four viceroyalties that Spain created to govern its conquered lands in the New World. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Die neue Corona-Welle trifft Madrid besonders hart. José de Gálvez (1720-1787), Spanish statesman, reformer, and inspector general of New Spain (Mexico), recommended and introduced profo…, LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/new-spain. The latest breaking news, comment and features from The Independent. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. There have been at least 1.24 million confirmed cases of coronavirus in Spain, according to the Spanish Ministry of Health.As of Nov. 2, 36,257 people had died. New Spain synonyms, New Spain pronunciation, New Spain translation, English dictionary definition of New Spain. ." For labor, the new rulers initially relied on the encomienda system, a system of labor in which the Spanish government awarded individual conquistadors with the labor and goods of the native people of a region. Berdan, Frances F., and Patricia Rieff Anawalt. In reality, there was considerable local self-government. New York: Dutton, 1939. The treaty surrendered American claims to Texas but arranged for the United States to acquire Florida in 1821. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. ed. ." (October 16, 2020). MacLeod, Murdo J. Spanish Central America: A Socioeconomic History, 1570–1720. Many manufactured goods from other parts of Europe and Asia also came to New Spain, primarily in exchange for the valuable silver. Spain lost these possessions as well by the end of the 1800s. The United States absorbed much of West Florida in 1810 and 1814. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Besides, Bay of Biscay lies in the north, Atlantic Ocean in the north-west and south-west, Mediterranean Sea in the east, and in the south, Gibraltar Strait separates Spain from Africa continent. Local news… For instance, some of the earliest forms of exploitation in the sixteenth century involved merely extracting, as tribute payments, agricultural and manufactured goods that were already being produced by indigenous laborers. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/new-spain-and-spanish-colonization. Its conquest of American natives happened within a few decades. POPULATION: 40 million Brading, D. A. Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico, 1763–1810. Spanish monarchs and their administrators attempted to overhaul the machinery of empire and revitalize royal control over the empire's American colonies. . When Christopher Columbus first landed in the Bahamas on 12 October 1492 he began a process of colonisation and empire-building on the part of Spain.By 5 December 1492, Columbus had arrived at western Hispaniola, where he founded the colony of La Navidad and became its first viceroy.Then he sailed to eastern Cuba. Für 850.000 Menschen gelten Ausgangsbeschränkungen, bald wohl für noch mehr. 5th ed. Its last holdings were the islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, which were ceded to the United States after Spain lost the Spanish-American War (1898). Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/new-spain-viceroyalty. The country Spain shares its international boundaries with France and Andorra in the north and Portugal in the west. The mines at Potosí (in modern Bolivia) yielded great quantities of silver. By the 1570s, the Spanish had established roughly 200 cities and towns in the New World. . Roman Catholic clergy had participated in the colonization of New Spain from the very beginning, with secular clergy (not members of a particular religious order) serving Spanish colonists in towns and cities and regular clergy establishing convents in settled urban areas and missions on the cultural frontier among newly evangelized indigenous communities. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992. The expeditions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries expanded Spanish claims into what are now the southeastern Gulf Coast states and the entire Southwest of the United States. The territory included the present-day Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, and the Philippines.It was ruled by a viceroy from Mexico City who governed on behalf of the King of Spain. New Spain wis established follaein the Spaingie conquest o the Aztec Empire in 1521. Hispanic American Historical Review 81, no. The mining of silver was accomplished by the enslaving of the native people, later supplemented by importing African slaves. demanding obedience, labor, and conversion to Christianity of the survivors. Criollos also owned mines and haciendas (plantations or large estates). Meaning of new spain. Thus, New Spain produced many commodities for export, including such goods as silver and cochineal. POPULATION Most of these holdings fell under the viceroyalty of Peru, which was administered separately from the viceroyalty of New Spain. The Kingdom of New Spain was a Spanish territory that came into existence in 1522, the year following 1521's Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire; the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España), was created as the Royal administration of New Spain. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Creoles (individuals of Spanish descent born in the Americas) also formed part of the colonial elite, while mestizos (people of both Spanish and indio ancestry) and castas (people of a variety of mixed European, African, and indigenous ethnicities) tended to be excluded from many powerful positions. New Spain AD 1535 - 1821. CÁdiz; Spanish conquistadors , or conquerors, destroyed the two most powerful civilizations of the New World, the Aztecs in present-day Mexico in 1521 and the Incas in Peru in 1535. This provided a new degree of social and ethnic mobility and a social base for future revolutionary leadership. SEE ALSO Barcelona; The best-known royal action of this sort was the expulsion of the Jesuit order from Spanish territories in 1767. New Spain also encompassed Florida and much of the western portion of what became the United States, including California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. (It also included the Philippines, off the coast of southeast Asia.). LANGUAGES During the three centuries of Spanish rule the diverse territory of New Spain served as an important source of commodities for global markets. The Spanish built settlements to protect their claims and to govern the people there. Spain, the second…, Gálvez, Bernardo de A third foreign entry into New Spain's trade came with non-Spanish ships supplying the colony with African slaves. Although his colony was destroyed by disease and warfare with nearby indigenous groups, Spanish authorities from nearby Coahuila responded to the threat of French expansion into New Spain by sending their own expedition into Texas. Ultimately, their reforms disrupted traditional social relations within the colonial system and contributed to favorable conditions for independence movements. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Since the economies of Europe were mostly experiencing healthy expansion, this somewhat milder wave of inflation did not have the same destructive impact on the rest of Europe as it did in Spain. In the interim, between 1763 and the start of the American Revolution, settlers from British colonies in North America began moving southward into Florida and westward into Louisiana. It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with its smaller neighbor Portugal. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/new-spain, "New Spain Consequently, within the Spanish mercantilist system a small group of wealthy merchants gained considerable influence over commercial policy and the export economy in New Spain. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/new-spain-viceroyalty, "New Spain, Viceroyalty of In the sixteenth century these goods included such items as cotton and cotton textiles, maize, cochineal and other dyestuffs, tobacco, and cacao. But in time, the imported metals caused economic inflation (a major increase in general prices, while income or purchasing power remains the same) in Spain. Meanwhile, their junior partners lived in New Spain's capital, Mexico City, storing and reselling the European imports throughout the year and accumulating silver and other commodities to send back to Spain on the next year's flota. At its height New Spain included what are today the southwestern United States, all of Mexico, Central America to the Isthmus of Panama, Florida, much of the West Indies (islands in the Caribbean), as well as the Philippines in the Pacific Ocean. This comes after Spain hits a grim milestone of being the first country to reach 1,000,000 Covid cases . Bernardo de Gálvez The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España), was the political unit of Spanish territories in North America and Asia-Pacific. Encyclopedia.com. The Course of Mexican History. Gwyneth Paltrow says she's … Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. RELIGIONS ETHNIC GROUPS New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. Gastón de Peralta, marqués de Falces, 1566–1567, Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, conde de la Coruña, 1580–1582, Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga, marqúes de Villamanrique, 1585–1590, Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas, 1590–1595 (first term), Gasper de Zúñiga y Acevedo, conde de Monterrey, 1595–1603, Juan Manuel de Mendoza y Luna, marqués de Montesclaros, 1603–1607, Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas, 1607–1611 (second term), Diego Fernández de Córdoba, marqués de Guadalcázar, 1612–1621, Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimental, marqués de Gelves y conde de Priego, 1621–1624, Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio, marqués de Cerralvo, 1624–1635, Lope Diáz de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta, 1635–1640, Diego López Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla, duque de Escalona, 1640–1642, García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, conde de Salvatierra y marqués de Sobroso, 1642–1648, Luis Enríquez de Guzmán, conde de Alba de Liste y marqués de Villaflor, 1650–1653, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, duque de Albuquerque, 1653–1660, Juan de Leyva y de la Cerda, marqués de Leyva, conde de Baños, 1660–1664, Antonio Sebastián de Toledo, marqués de Mancera, 1664–1673, Pedro Núñez Colón de Portugal, duque de Veragua y marqués de Jamaica, 1673, Tomás Antonio Manrique de la Cerda y Aragón, conde de Paredes y marqués de Laguna, 1680–1686, Melchor Portocarrero y Lasso de la Vega, conde de la Monclova, 1686–1688, Gaspar de Sandoval y de la Cerda Andoval Silva y Mendoza, conde de Galve, 1688–1696, Juan de Ortega y Montañes, 1696–1697 (first term), José Sarmiento de Valladares, conde de Moctezuma y de Tula, 1697–1701, Juan de Ortega y Montañes, 1701–1702 (second term), Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez, duque de Albuquerque, 1702–1711, Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva, duque de Linares, 1711–1716, Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán, marqués de Valero y duque de Arión, 1716–1722, Juan de Acuña y Bejarano, marqués de Casafuerte, 1722–1734, Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Equiarreta, 1734–1740, Pedro de Castro y Figueroa, duque de la Conquista y marqués de Gracia Real, 1740–1741, Pedro Cebrián y Agustín, conde de Fuenclara, 1742–1746, Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas, conde de Revillagigedo, 1746–1755, Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón, marqués de las Amarillas, 1755–1760, Joaquín de Monserrat, marqués de Cruillas, 1761–1766, Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix, 1766–1771, Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, 1771–1779, Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Gálvez, 1785–1786, Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco y Padilla, conde de Revillagigedo, 1789–1794, Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, 1794–1798, Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont, 1809–1810, Félix María Calleja del Rey, marqués de Calderón, 1813–1816, Juan Ruíz de Apodaca, conde del Venadito, 1816–1821.